Communication protocols and Standards

            Communication protocols and Standards .Both sides, Telecommunications network. The computer, and includes various interfaces. Today, it's garnered enough rough. Classified as follows.



TechnologyStandard
Wireless TransmissionIEEE802.11, IEEE802.11a, IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11g,IEEE802.11n, WiMAX, Satellite, Bluetooth
High Speed Internet AccessADSL, HDSL, RADSL, SDSL, VDSL, G.SHDSL, FTTH, ISDN,Cable modem, TDM
WAN, MANEthernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI, SONET/SDH,ATM, DWDM/CWDM, Frame relay, MPLS, Satellite
Mobile Phone0G
PTT, MTS, IMTS, AMTS, IPTS
0.5G
Autotel/PALM, ARP
1G
NMT, AMPS
2G
GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, CDMA, PDC, PHS
2.5G
GPRS, CDMA2000 1xRTT
2.75G
EDGE
3G
UMTS
CDMA2000 1xEV
TD-SCDMA
4G
OFDM
Internet MobilityMobile IP, Mobile IPv6, NEMO
SignallingH.323, SIP, RSVP, H.225.0, H.245
StreamingRTP, RTCP, RTSP
Media CodecAudio
GSM, G.711, G.721(ADPCM), G.722, G.723, G.723.1,G.726,
G.728, G.729, G729a, HILN, AMR, Speex, MP1,
MP2, MP3, AC-3, PCM, AAC, ATRAC, DTS, Musepack,
TwinVQ, WMA, Vorbis, PAC
Video
AVS, Cinepak, H.261, H.263, H.263v2, H.264, KVCD,
MJPEG, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, Pixlet, RealVideo,
WMV
InternetTCP, UDP, ICMP, IPv4, IPv6(IPSoC)
TelephonePSTN
Server (Network protocol)FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, POP3, SNMP, SMTP, Telnet, Gnutella, DNS, SSH, IMAP, NTP, Gopher, Finger, NNTP, LDAP, DHCP, IRC, Jabber, WebDAV, DICT, BACnet, RADIUS, DIAMETER, SIP, SSL, WAP
Adhoc NetworkMANET
InterfaceSerial Port, Parallel Port, USB1.1, USB2.0, Firewire, Infrared,Bluetooth, SCSI

Description 

Wireless 
Type of ServiceTheoretical
Throughput
Frequency
band
Description
IEEE802.11n> 100 Mbps2.4 GHzHigher throughput improvements
WiMAX
(IEEE802.16)
70 Mbps2 - 11 GHzWorldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, 50 km range
IEEE802.11g54 Mbps2.4 GHz-
IEEE802.11a54 Mbps5 GHz-
IEEE802.11b11 Mbps2.4 GHz-
Bluetooth2.1 Mbps2.4 GHz10-100 m range depending on the power class
IEEE802.111-2 Mbps2.4 GHzOriginal standard
  Distance coverage depends on products and power consumed

Hi-Speed Internet Access
Type of ServiceTheoretical ThroughputDescription
VDSL52 Mbps (upstream)
12 Mbps (downstream)
Very high bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, using 4 different frequency bands
ADSL256 kbps - 24 Mbps
(downstream)
640 kbps - 3.5 Mbps
(upstream)
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, 25.875 kHz to 138kHz (upstream), 138 kHz - 1104 kHz (downstream)
SDSL72-2320 kbpsSymmetric Digital Subscriber Line,3 km max range
G.SHDSL192-2304 kbpsSingle-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line
TDM64 kbps per channel frameTime-Division Multiplexing, divided into DS0, DS1 (T1),DS2, DS3 (T3), DS4, DS5
RADSLVariedRate-adaptive Digital Subscriber Line, adaptive upstream speed
FTTHVariedFibre to the Home, using fibre-optic cables
ISDN64 - 128 kbpsIntegrated Services Digital Network, transmitting data over ordinary telephone copper wires
Cable modem

  - DOCSIS


  - HFC


384 kbps (upstream)
4 Mbps (downstream)

2 Mbps (upstream)
10 Mbps (downstream)
Using cable television infrastructure

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification,typically transfer rate is capped.

Hybrid Fibre Coaxial





WAN & MAN
Type of ServiceTheoretical ThroughputDescription
DWDM/CWDMUp to 10 G and
expanded over 1.6Tbps
Dense/Coarse Wavelength-division multiplexing
Gigabit Ethernet
- 1000BASE-T

- 1000BASE-SX


- 1000BASE-LX

- 10GBASE-SR


- 10GBASE-CX4



- 10GBASE-LX4


- 10GBASE-LR

- 10GBASE-ER

1 Gbps

1 Gbps


1 Gbps

10 Gbps


10 Gbps



10 Gbps


10 Gbps

10 Gbps

Transferring data over cat-5e copper cable

Operating over multi-mode optical fibre using a 0.85 micrometre near infrared light wave length.

Using single-mode optical fibre

Supporting short distances over multi-mode fibre cabling, 26-82 m range

Copper interface using InfiniBand CX4 cables and InfiniBand 4x connectors for short-reach applications, max. 15 m range

Using wavelength division multiplexing, 240-300 m range

Long range (10 km), single-mode fibre

Extended range (40 km), single-mode fibre
FDDI100 MbpsFibre distributed data interface,200 km range, based on the token ring protocol, using optical fibre or copper cable
Ethernet
- 10BASE5


- 10BASE2

- 10BASE-T


- 10BASE-F
10 Mbps
Using a single 50-ohm RG-8 coaxial cable, 500 m range

50-ohm RG-58 coaxial cable, 200 m range

Running over 2 twisted pairs of cat-3 or cat-5 cables, 100m range

Using fibre optic cable
SONETIncrements of 51.840 MbpsSynchronous Optical Networking, widely used in the U.S. and Canada
SDHIncrements of 51.840 MbpsSynchronous Digital Hierarchy, made possible by the existence of atomic clocks
ATMVariedAsynchronous Transfer Mode, cell relay network protocol
Frame relayVariedPacket switched telecommunication network
MPLSVariedMultiprotocol Label Switching, application of benefits of ATM to IP and other packet-switching technologies
SatelliteVaried-

Mobile Phone 
Type of ServiceTheoretical ThroughputDescription
OFDM (4G)10 up MbpsOrthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, used in many communications systems such as:ADSL, Wireless LAN, DAB, DVB, UWB and PLC
TD-SCDMA8-10 MbpsTime Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access, packet-based data service in W-CDMA
CDMA2000 1xEV3.1 Mbps (downlink), 1.8 Mbps
(uplink)
Code Division Multiple Access
UMTS
(Wideband CDMA)
1920 kbpsUniversal Mobile Telecommunications System, 1885-2025 MHz (uplink), 2110-2200 MHz (downlink)
EDGE384 kbpsEnhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution, working in TDMA and GSM
CDMA2000 1xRTT144 kbpsCode Division Multiple Access
iDEN96 kbps (WiDEN)Integrated Digital Enhanced Network,proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus Mobility in Canada
GPRS30-70 kbpsGeneral Packet Radio Service
GSM9600-64000 bpsGlobal System for Mobile Communications, originally from Europe but used worldwide 900/1800 MHz and 850/1900 MHz in the USA and Canada
CDMA14400 bpsCode Division Multiple Access, used in the Americas and parts of Asia
D-AMPS9600 bpsDigital Advanced Mobile Phone System, used in Americas
PDC9.6 kbpsPersonal Digital Cellular, used exclusively in Japan

Interface
InterfaceTheoretical ThroughputDescription
USB2.0480 MbpsUniversal Serial Bus
FireWire400 Mbpsi.Link or IEEE1394A, serial bus interface standard offering highspeed communications and isochronous real-time
Infrared2.4k - 16M bps1 m range, 0.1 m low-power range
USB1.112 MbpsUniversal Serial Bus
Parallel Port12 MbpsIEEE1284
Bluetooth2.1 Mbps10-100 m range depending on the power class
Serial Port300, 1200, 2400, 9600, 19200,etc bps-


SCSI Interface Overview

InterfaceBus Speed(Mbyte/s)Bus Width(Bits)Max.Cable Length(Metres)Max.Number of Devices
SCSI-13.5(asynchronous)
5(synchronous)
868
SCSI-2
  -Fast SCSI
  -Wide SCSI

10
20

8
16

1.5 - 3
1.5 - 3

8
16
SCSI-3
  -Ultra SCSI
  -Ultra-Wide SCSI

20
40

8
16

1.5 - 3
1.5 - 3

5 - 8
5 - 8
Ultra-2 SCSI408128
Ultra-2 Wide SCSI80161216
Ultra-3 SCSI160161216
Ultra-320 SCSI320161216
Ultra-640 SCSI640161216
iSCSILimited only by IP
network
N/AN/AN/A

Video Codec

CodecFrame size (in pixels)Bit rate
(average)
Description
AVSVaried150 kbpsAudio Video Standard, developed by Audio Video Coding Standard Working Group of China
CinepakVariedLowPrimary codec of early version of QuickTime and Microsoft Video for Windows
H.261352x288
176x144
40 k - 2 MbpsOriginally designed for transmission over ISDN,now obsolete
H.263176x144
128x96
Low, < 64 kbpsFor video conferencing,
H.264VariedVariedMPEG-4 Part 10, high compression digital video codec standard,
KVCD528x576
352x288
64 k - 3 MbpsModification to the standard MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, compatible with most modern standalone DVD players
MJPEG720x57629 MbpsMotion JPEG, quality decreases when footage contains lots of movement.
MPEG-1Limited at
352x288
Limited at 1150
kbps
VHS-quality, enabled Video CD, enabled CDROM,highest compatibility of any digital video/audio codec
MPEG-2720x576,
704x576,
352x576,
352x288
Constant or
variable
Used to encode audio and video for broadcast signals, used by standard commercial DVD movies
MPEG-4VariedVariedDivX, XviD, 3ivx, Primarily used for web streaming media, CD distribution, videophone and broadcast television, scalable quality
PixletVariedVariedCreated by Apple Computer and based on wavelets, designed to enable viewing of full resolution
RealVideoVariedVariedCreated by RealNetwork, used to deliver streaming video across IP networks at low bit rates to PCs, optimised for streaming via the proprietary Phoneline Networking Alliance protocol
WMVVariedVariedWindows Media Video, streaming video codec developed by Microsoft, used as low resolution video for dial up internet users to HDTV, viewed as an enhancement of the MPEG-4

  Frame size is based on PAL system. 
  NTSC consists of 29.97 interlaced frames per second.
  PAL consists of 25 interlaced frames per second.


Audio Codec

Codecbit rateSampling frequencyNumber of channelsDescription
General (medium to high bit rate)
AC-3640 kbps (max.)
448 kbps (DVD,
Digital cable TV)
384 kbps (ATSC)
-MultiBelonging to Dolby Digital,supporting multi-channel audio, used on DVD
PCMVaried
64 kbps (DS0)
-Up to 8Pulse-code modulation, digital representation of an analogue signal by sampling the magnitude of the signal at uniform intervals, used in digital telephone systems and digital audio in computers and CDs
AAC-8 - 96 kHz-Advanced Audio Coding,
ATRAC48, 64, 66, 132, 256kbps--Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding, developed by Sony,used to store information on Minidisc,
DTS768 - 1536 kbps (6-channel)-MultiDigital Theatre System, used for in-movie sound on film and on DVD
MP1384 kbpsVaried1, 2Lowest encoder complexity
MP2256 - 384 kbps
(excellent)
224 - 256 kbps (very
good)
192 - 224 kbps
(good)
Varied1, 2More complex encoder and decoder, able to remove more of the signal redundancy and to apply the psychoacoustic threshold more efficiently
MP3224 - 320 kbps
(excellent)
192 - 224 kbps (very good)
128 - 192 (good)
32, 41.1, 48kHz1, 2More complex, directed towards lower bit rate applications
Musepack160 - 180 kbps-2Known as MPC, MPEGplus,MPEG+ or MP+, a derivative of MP2
TwinVQConstant bitrate at 80, 96, 112, 128,160, 192 kbps--Developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation
Vorbis45 - 500 kbps--Open and free codec project from the Xiph.org Foundation
WMAConstant and variable bit rate support-MultiDeveloped by Microsoft
Voice (low bit rate, optimised for speech)
G.71164 kbps8 kHz-Compressed pulse code modulation (PCM)
G.723.16.3, 5.3 kbps--Used in Voice over IP (VoIP) applications
G.72616 - 40 kbps 32 kbps (Commonly used)---
G.72816 kbps---
G.7296.4, 8, 11.8 kbps--Mostly used in VoIP applications
HILN6 - 16 kbps--Harmonic and Individual Lines and Noise
AMR4.75, 5.15, 5.90,
6.70, 7,40, 7.95,
10.2, 12.2 kbps
--Adaptive Multi-Rate,
SpeexVariable8, 16, 32kHz-Used in teleconference
software, streaming, P2P and
audio processing applications
Others (used for satellite radio and IBOC digital radio)
PAC---Perceptual Audio Coding, an algorithm like MPEG MP3 standard, used by Sirius Satellite Radio

Reference : http://internet.nectec.or.th/netcategory/

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