มาตรฐานระบบเครือข่าย ( Communication protocols and Standards)

          มาตรฐานระบบเครือข่าย พวกโปรโตคอลการสื่อสาร ทั้งที่เป็นด้าน การสื่อสารโทรคมนาคมระบบเครือข่าย ทางด้านคอมพิวเตอร์ และรวมถึงอินเตอร์เฟซต่างๆ วันนี้จะขอรวบรวมมาพอคร่าวๆ ซึ่งจำแนกได้ดังนี้

Technology Standard
Wireless Transmission IEEE802.11, IEEE802.11a, IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11g,IEEE802.11n, WiMAX, Satellite, Bluetooth
High Speed Internet Access ADSL, HDSL, RADSL, SDSL, VDSL, G.SHDSL, FTTH, ISDN,Cable modem, TDM
WAN, MAN Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI, SONET/SDH,ATM, DWDM/CWDM, Frame relay, MPLS, Satellite
Mobile Phone 0G
PTT, MTS, IMTS, AMTS, IPTS
0.5G
Autotel/PALM, ARP
1G
NMT, AMPS
2G
GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, CDMA, PDC, PHS
2.5G
GPRS, CDMA2000 1xRTT
2.75G
EDGE
3G
UMTS
CDMA2000 1xEV
TD-SCDMA
4G
OFDM
Internet Mobility Mobile IP, Mobile IPv6, NEMO
Signalling H.323, SIP, RSVP, H.225.0, H.245
Streaming RTP, RTCP, RTSP
Media Codec Audio
GSM, G.711, G.721(ADPCM), G.722, G.723, G.723.1,G.726,
G.728, G.729, G729a, HILN, AMR, Speex, MP1,
MP2, MP3, AC-3, PCM, AAC, ATRAC, DTS, Musepack,
TwinVQ, WMA, Vorbis, PAC
Video
AVS, Cinepak, H.261, H.263, H.263v2, H.264, KVCD,
MJPEG, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, Pixlet, RealVideo,
WMV
Internet TCP, UDP, ICMP, IPv4, IPv6(IPSoC)
Telephone PSTN
Server (Network protocol) FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, POP3, SNMP, SMTP, Telnet, Gnutella, DNS, SSH, IMAP, NTP, Gopher, Finger, NNTP, LDAP, DHCP, IRC, Jabber, WebDAV, DICT, BACnet, RADIUS, DIAMETER, SIP, SSL, WAP
Adhoc Network MANET
Interface Serial Port, Parallel Port, USB1.1, USB2.0, Firewire, Infrared,Bluetooth, SCSI

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Wireless
Type of Service Theoretical
Throughput
Frequency
band
Description
IEEE802.11n > 100 Mbps 2.4 GHz Higher throughput improvements
WiMAX
(IEEE802.16)
70 Mbps 2 - 11 GHz Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, 50 km range
IEEE802.11g 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz -
IEEE802.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz -
IEEE802.11b 11 Mbps 2.4 GHz -
Bluetooth 2.1 Mbps 2.4 GHz 10-100 m range depending on the power class
IEEE802.11 1-2 Mbps 2.4 GHz Original standard
  Distance coverage depends on products and power consumed

Hi-Speed Internet Access
Type of Service Theoretical Throughput Description
VDSL 52 Mbps (upstream)
12 Mbps (downstream)
Very high bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, using 4 different frequency bands
ADSL 256 kbps - 24 Mbps
(downstream)
640 kbps - 3.5 Mbps
(upstream)
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, 25.875 kHz to 138kHz (upstream), 138 kHz - 1104 kHz (downstream)
SDSL 72-2320 kbps Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line,3 km max range
G.SHDSL 192-2304 kbps Single-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line
TDM 64 kbps per channel frame Time-Division Multiplexing, divided into DS0, DS1 (T1),DS2, DS3 (T3), DS4, DS5
RADSL Varied Rate-adaptive Digital Subscriber Line, adaptive upstream speed
FTTH Varied Fibre to the Home, using fibre-optic cables
ISDN 64 - 128 kbps Integrated Services Digital Network, transmitting data over ordinary telephone copper wires
Cable modem

  - DOCSIS


  - HFC


384 kbps (upstream)
4 Mbps (downstream)

2 Mbps (upstream)
10 Mbps (downstream)
Using cable television infrastructure

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification,typically transfer rate is capped.

Hybrid Fibre Coaxial





WAN & MAN
Type of Service Theoretical Throughput Description
DWDM/CWDM Up to 10 G and
expanded over 1.6Tbps
Dense/Coarse Wavelength-division multiplexing
Gigabit Ethernet
- 1000BASE-T

- 1000BASE-SX


- 1000BASE-LX

- 10GBASE-SR


- 10GBASE-CX4



- 10GBASE-LX4


- 10GBASE-LR

- 10GBASE-ER


1 Gbps

1 Gbps


1 Gbps

10 Gbps


10 Gbps



10 Gbps


10 Gbps

10 Gbps


Transferring data over cat-5e copper cable

Operating over multi-mode optical fibre using a 0.85 micrometre near infrared light wave length.

Using single-mode optical fibre

Supporting short distances over multi-mode fibre cabling, 26-82 m range

Copper interface using InfiniBand CX4 cables and InfiniBand 4x connectors for short-reach applications, max. 15 m range

Using wavelength division multiplexing, 240-300 m range

Long range (10 km), single-mode fibre

Extended range (40 km), single-mode fibre
FDDI 100 Mbps Fibre distributed data interface,200 km range, based on the token ring protocol, using optical fibre or copper cable
Ethernet
- 10BASE5


- 10BASE2

- 10BASE-T


- 10BASE-F

10 Mbps
Using a single 50-ohm RG-8 coaxial cable, 500 m range

50-ohm RG-58 coaxial cable, 200 m range

Running over 2 twisted pairs of cat-3 or cat-5 cables, 100m range

Using fibre optic cable
SONET Increments of 51.840 Mbps Synchronous Optical Networking, widely used in the U.S. and Canada
SDH Increments of 51.840 Mbps Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, made possible by the existence of atomic clocks
ATM Varied Asynchronous Transfer Mode, cell relay network protocol
Frame relay Varied Packet switched telecommunication network
MPLS Varied Multiprotocol Label Switching, application of benefits of ATM to IP and other packet-switching technologies
Satellite Varied -

Mobile Phone
Type of Service Theoretical Throughput Description
OFDM (4G) 10 up Mbps Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, used in many communications systems such as:ADSL, Wireless LAN, DAB, DVB, UWB and PLC
TD-SCDMA 8-10 Mbps Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access, packet-based data service in W-CDMA
CDMA2000 1xEV 3.1 Mbps (downlink), 1.8 Mbps
(uplink)
Code Division Multiple Access
UMTS
(Wideband CDMA)
1920 kbps Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 1885-2025 MHz (uplink), 2110-2200 MHz (downlink)
EDGE 384 kbps Enhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution, working in TDMA and GSM
CDMA2000 1xRTT 144 kbps Code Division Multiple Access
iDEN 96 kbps (WiDEN) Integrated Digital Enhanced Network,proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus Mobility in Canada
GPRS 30-70 kbps General Packet Radio Service
GSM 9600-64000 bps Global System for Mobile Communications, originally from Europe but used worldwide 900/1800 MHz and 850/1900 MHz in the USA and Canada
CDMA 14400 bps Code Division Multiple Access, used in the Americas and parts of Asia
D-AMPS 9600 bps Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System, used in Americas
PDC 9.6 kbps Personal Digital Cellular, used exclusively in Japan

Interface
Interface Theoretical Throughput Description
USB2.0 480 Mbps Universal Serial Bus
FireWire 400 Mbps i.Link or IEEE1394A, serial bus interface standard offering highspeed communications and isochronous real-time
Infrared 2.4k - 16M bps 1 m range, 0.1 m low-power range
USB1.1 12 Mbps Universal Serial Bus
Parallel Port 12 Mbps IEEE1284
Bluetooth 2.1 Mbps 10-100 m range depending on the power class
Serial Port 300, 1200, 2400, 9600, 19200,etc bps -


SCSI Interface Overview

Interface Bus Speed(Mbyte/s) Bus Width(Bits) Max.Cable Length(Metres) Max.Number of Devices
SCSI-1 3.5(asynchronous)
5(synchronous)
8 6 8
SCSI-2
  -Fast SCSI
  -Wide SCSI

10
20

8
16

1.5 - 3
1.5 - 3

8
16
SCSI-3
  -Ultra SCSI
  -Ultra-Wide SCSI

20
40

8
16

1.5 - 3
1.5 - 3

5 - 8
5 - 8
Ultra-2 SCSI 40 8 12 8
Ultra-2 Wide SCSI 80 16 12 16
Ultra-3 SCSI 160 16 12 16
Ultra-320 SCSI 320 16 12 16
Ultra-640 SCSI 640 16 12 16
iSCSI Limited only by IP
network
N/A N/A N/A

Video Codec

Codec Frame size (in pixels) Bit rate
(average)
Description
AVS Varied 150 kbps Audio Video Standard, developed by Audio Video Coding Standard Working Group of China
Cinepak Varied Low Primary codec of early version of QuickTime and Microsoft Video for Windows
H.261 352x288
176x144
40 k - 2 Mbps Originally designed for transmission over ISDN,now obsolete
H.263 176x144
128x96
Low, < 64 kbps For video conferencing,
H.264 Varied Varied MPEG-4 Part 10, high compression digital video codec standard,
KVCD 528x576
352x288
64 k - 3 Mbps Modification to the standard MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, compatible with most modern standalone DVD players
MJPEG 720x576 29 Mbps Motion JPEG, quality decreases when footage contains lots of movement.
MPEG-1 Limited at
352x288
Limited at 1150
kbps
VHS-quality, enabled Video CD, enabled CDROM,highest compatibility of any digital video/audio codec
MPEG-2 720x576,
704x576,
352x576,
352x288
Constant or
variable
Used to encode audio and video for broadcast signals, used by standard commercial DVD movies
MPEG-4 Varied Varied DivX, XviD, 3ivx, Primarily used for web streaming media, CD distribution, videophone and broadcast television, scalable quality
Pixlet Varied Varied Created by Apple Computer and based on wavelets, designed to enable viewing of full resolution
RealVideo Varied Varied Created by RealNetwork, used to deliver streaming video across IP networks at low bit rates to PCs, optimised for streaming via the proprietary Phoneline Networking Alliance protocol
WMV Varied Varied Windows Media Video, streaming video codec developed by Microsoft, used as low resolution video for dial up internet users to HDTV, viewed as an enhancement of the MPEG-4

  Frame size is based on PAL system.
  NTSC consists of 29.97 interlaced frames per second.
  PAL consists of 25 interlaced frames per second.


Audio Codec

Codec bit rate Sampling frequency Number of channels Description
General (medium to high bit rate)
AC-3 640 kbps (max.)
448 kbps (DVD,
Digital cable TV)
384 kbps (ATSC)
- Multi Belonging to Dolby Digital,supporting multi-channel audio, used on DVD
PCM Varied
64 kbps (DS0)
- Up to 8 Pulse-code modulation, digital representation of an analogue signal by sampling the magnitude of the signal at uniform intervals, used in digital telephone systems and digital audio in computers and CDs
AAC - 8 - 96 kHz - Advanced Audio Coding,
ATRAC 48, 64, 66, 132, 256kbps - - Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding, developed by Sony,used to store information on Minidisc,
DTS 768 - 1536 kbps (6-channel) - Multi Digital Theatre System, used for in-movie sound on film and on DVD
MP1 384 kbps Varied 1, 2 Lowest encoder complexity
MP2 256 - 384 kbps
(excellent)
224 - 256 kbps (very
good)
192 - 224 kbps
(good)
Varied 1, 2 More complex encoder and decoder, able to remove more of the signal redundancy and to apply the psychoacoustic threshold more efficiently
MP3 224 - 320 kbps
(excellent)
192 - 224 kbps (very good)
128 - 192 (good)
32, 41.1, 48kHz 1, 2 More complex, directed towards lower bit rate applications
Musepack 160 - 180 kbps - 2 Known as MPC, MPEGplus,MPEG+ or MP+, a derivative of MP2
TwinVQ Constant bitrate at 80, 96, 112, 128,160, 192 kbps - - Developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation
Vorbis 45 - 500 kbps - - Open and free codec project from the Xiph.org Foundation
WMA Constant and variable bit rate support - Multi Developed by Microsoft
Voice (low bit rate, optimised for speech)
G.711 64 kbps 8 kHz - Compressed pulse code modulation (PCM)
G.723.1 6.3, 5.3 kbps - - Used in Voice over IP (VoIP) applications
G.726 16 - 40 kbps 32 kbps (Commonly used) - - -
G.728 16 kbps - - -
G.729 6.4, 8, 11.8 kbps - - Mostly used in VoIP applications
HILN 6 - 16 kbps - - Harmonic and Individual Lines and Noise
AMR 4.75, 5.15, 5.90,
6.70, 7,40, 7.95,
10.2, 12.2 kbps
- - Adaptive Multi-Rate,
Speex Variable 8, 16, 32kHz - Used in teleconference
software, streaming, P2P and
audio processing applications
Others (used for satellite radio and IBOC digital radio)
PAC - - - Perceptual Audio Coding, an algorithm like MPEG MP3 standard, used by Sirius Satellite Radio

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